Open-source intelligence and privacy by design

Aside

Koops, E.J., Leenes, R.E., & Hoepman, J.H. (2013). Open-source intelligence and privacy by design. Computer Law and Security Review29(6), 676-688 more.

Abstract

As demonstrated by other papers on this issue, open-source intelligence (OSINT) by state authorities poses challenges for privacy protection and intellectual-property enforcement. A possible strategy to address these challenges is to adapt the design of OSINT tools to embed normative requirements, in particular legal requirements. The experience of the VIRTUOSO platform will be used to illustrate this strategy. Ideally, the technical development process of OSINT tools is combined with legal and ethical safeguards in such a way that the resulting products have a legally compliant design, are acceptable within society (social embedding), and at the same time meet in a sufficiently flexible way the varying requirements of different end-user groups. This paper uses the analytic framework of privacy design strategies (minimise, separate, aggregate, hide, inform, control, enforce, and demonstrate), arguing that two approaches for embedding legal compliance seem promising to explore in particular. One approach is the concept of revocable privacy with spread responsibility. The other approach uses a policy mark-up language to define Enterprise Privacy Policies, which determine appropriate data handling.

Both approaches are tested against three requirements that seem particularly suitable for a ‘compliance by design’ approach in OSINT: purpose specification; collection and use limitation and data minimisation; and data quality (up-to-dateness). For each requirement, the paper analyses whether and to what extent the approach could work to build in the requirement in the system. The paper concludes that legal requirements cannot be embedded fully in OSINT systems. However, it is possible to embed functionalities that facilitate compliance in allowing end-users to determine to what extent they adopt a ‘privacy-by-design’ approach when procuring an OSINT platform, extending it with plug-ins, and fine-tuning it to their needs. The paper argues that developers of OSINT platforms and networks have a responsibility to make sure that end-users are enabled to use privacy by design, by allowing functionalities such as revocable privacy and a policy-enforcement language.

Books/edited volumes

Status

  • S. Gutwirth Leenes, Ronald; De Hert, Paul (Eds.), Reforming European Data Protection Law, Law, Governance and Technology Series 20, Dordrecht: Springer, 2015 DOI 10.1007/978-94-017-9385-8__1
  • Gutwirth, Serge; Leenes, Ronald; De Hert, Paul (Eds.) (2014) European Data Protection: Reloading Data Protection, Dordrecht: Springer, 2014.
  • Leenes, Ronald & Kosta, Eleni (2013). Bridging distances in technology and regulation, Oisterwijk: Wolf Legal Publishers.
  • Serge Gutwirth, Ronald Leenes, Paul De Hert, Yves Poullet (eds), European Data Protection: Coming of Age, Dordrecht: Springer, 2013.
  • Jan Camenisch, Bruno Crispo, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Ronald Leenes, Giovanni Rusello (eds), Privacy and Identity Management for Life – 7th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6 International Summer School, Revised Selected Papers, Trento, Italy, Dordrecht: Springer, IFIP AICT 375, 2012.
  • Simone Fischer-Hübner, Penny Duquenoy, Marit Hansen, Ronald Leenes, Ge Zhang(Eds.), Privacy and Identity Management for Life – 6th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6/PrimeLife International Summer School, Helsingborg, Sweden, August 2-6, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Dordrecht: Springer, IFIP AICT 352, 2011.
  • Gutwirth, S.; Leenes, R.; De Hert, P.; Poullet, Y. (Eds.) (2012), European Data Protection: In Good Health?, Dordrecht: Springer, 2012.
  • Jan Camenisch, Ronald Leenes, Dieter Sommer, (eds), Digital Privacy: PRIME – Privacy and Identity Management for Europe, Heidelberg, Dordrecht: Springer, 2011.
  • Serge Gutwirth, Yves Poullet, Paul De Hert, Ronald Leenes (eds), Computers, Privacy and Data Protection: an Element of Choice, Dordrecht: Springer, 2011.
  • Ronald Leenes, Harde Lessen – apologie voor technologie als reguleringsinstrument, oratie, Tilburg: Universiteit van Tilburg, 2010.
  • Morag Goodwin, Bert-Jaap Koops, Ronald Leenes (eds), Dimensions of Technology Regulation, Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers, 2010.
  • Ronald Leenes, Bert-Jaap Koops & Paul De Hert, (eds), Constitutional Rights and New Technologies, a comparative study, T.M.C. Asser Press, 2007. (free download of the report on which this book is based).
  • Leenes, R.E. (ed.) Online Dispute Resolution and Data Protection. special issue of International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 127 (2007).
  • Breuker, J., Leenes, R., & Winkels, R. Legal Knowledge and Information Systems: Jurix 2000: The Thirteenth Annual Conference. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2000.
  • R.E. Leenes, Hercules of Karneades, Hard cases in recht en rechtsinformatica, dissertatie UT, Enschede: Twente University Press, 1998.

Peer reviewed Journals

Status

  • Ronald Leenes & Federica Lucivero, Laws on Robots, Laws by Robots, Laws in Robots: Regulating Robot Behaviour by Design, in Law, Innovation, and Technology, (2014) 6(2) LIT 194–222, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5235/17579961.6.2.194
  • Koops, E.J., Leenes, R.E., & Hoepman, J.H. (2013). Open-source intelligence and privacy by design. Computer Law and Security Review29(6), 676-688, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0267364913001672
  • Koops, B.-J., & Leenes, R. Privacy regulation cannot be hardcoded. A critical comment on the ‘privacy by design’ provision in data-protection law. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 1-13.
  • Ronald Leenes (2011). Framing Techno-Regulation: An Exploration of State and Non-State Regulation by Technology, Legisprudence, V5N2, pp. 143-169, http://dx.doi.org/10.5235/175214611797885675 SSRN pre-print
  • Ronald Leenes, Who controls the cloud?, IDP. INTERNET, LAW AND POLITICS E-JOURNAL, vol 2011, nr. 11, pp 1-10, 2011. http://idp.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/idp/article/viewFile/n11-leenes/n11-leenes-eng
  • Ronald Leenes, ¿Quién controla la nube?, IDP. REVISTA DE INTERNET, DERECHO Y POLITICA, vol 2011, nr. 11, pp 1-10, 2011. http://idp.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/idp/article/viewFile/n11-leenes/n11-leenes-esp
  • Bibi van den Berg, Ronald Leenes, Masking in Social Network Sites – Translating a Real-World Social Practice to the Online Domain, in: it – Information Technology, vol 53 (1), 2011, pp 26-33.
  • Ardagna, Claudio A., Jan Camenisch, Markulf Kohlweiss, Ronald Leenes, Gregory Neven, Bart Priem, Pierangela Samarati, Dieter Sommer and Mario Verdicchio (2010) Exploiting cryptography for privacy-enhanced access control: A result of the PRIME Project, Journal of Computer Security, 18, 1, 123-60, http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JCS-2010-0367.
  • Laura Klaming, Jelle van Veenen, Ronald Leenes, I want the opposite of What You Want: Reducing Fixed-Pie Perceptions in Online Negotiations, Journal of Dispute Resolution, Vol. 2009, no. 1, pp. 139-162.
  • Koops, B.-J., Leenes, R., Meints, M., van der Meulen, N., & Jacquet-Chiffelle, D.-O. (2008). A Typology of Identity-related Crime: Conceptual, Technical, and Legal Issues. Information Communication & Society, 13(1), 1-24.
  • Leenes, R. (2008). Do they know me? – Deconstructing identifiability. University of Ottawa Law & Technology Journal, 4: 1&2, pp. 135-161.
  • Leenes, R. (2008). Protecting identity online: law and technology? – User-centric Identity Management as an indispensable tool for privacy protection. Int. J. Intellectual Property Management, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2008, pp. 345-371.
  • Bert-Jaap Koops & Ronald Leenes (2006), ‘”Code” and the Slow Erosion of Privacy’, Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review 12:1, p. 115-188
  • R. Leenes en C. Prins (2006), Techniek als alternatief reguleringsinstrument, implicaties voor privaatrechtelijke verhoudingen. In: B. Dorbeck-Jung & M. Oude Vrielink-van Heffen (red), Op weg naar bruikbare regulering? Themanummer Recht der Werkelijkheid, p. 117-134.
  • B.-J. Koops, R. Leenes, Identity Theft, Identity Fraud and/or Identity-related Crime, in Datenschutz und Datensicherheit 9/2006, pp. 553 – 556.
  • Leenes, R.E., & Koops, B.J. (2005). ‘Code’: Privacy’s Death or Saviour? International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 329-340.
  • Leenes, R.E., Andersson, C., Camenisch, J., Crane, S., Fischer-Huebner, S., Pearsson, S., Sommer, D., & Petterson, J.S. (2005). Trust in Prime, Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and IT. Athene: Prime.
  • Leenes, R.E. (2004). Local e-Government in the Netherlands: From Ambitious Policy Goals to Harsh Reality. ITA manu:script, 04(04), 1-23.
  • Leenes, R.E. & Svensson, J.S. E-voting in Europe: diverging democratic practice. In: Information Polity, 8, pp. 3-15, 2003.
  • Leenes, R.E., and Tauritz, L.A. 2002. Klantgerichte dienstverlening in Enschede. Over ICT en de modernisering van dienstverlening. Bestuurskunde. 11(december 2002, nummer 8): pp. 338-346, 2002.
  • Ronald Leenes, De moeizame weg naar elektronische dienstverlening, in: Openbaar Bestuur, jaargang 11, nr 6/7, pp: 12-15, 2001.
  • Ronald Leenes and Jorgen Svensson, Supporting the legal practitioner:  LKBS or Web?, in: Law, Computers and Artificial Intelligence, volume 6, no. 3, pp. 217-228, 1997.
  • Ronald Leenes, Arno Lodder and Jaap Hage, A dialog game for legal arguments, in: Law, Computers and Artificial Intelligence, volume 3 nr 2/3, pp. 211-226, 1994.
  • Jaap C. Hage, Ronald Leenes and Arno R. Lodder, Hard cases: a procedural approach, in: Artificial Intelligence and Law, 2: 113-167, 1994.
  • Ronald Leenes, Dialogical reason based logic for modelling legal reasoning, in: Law, Computers and Artificial Intelligence, Vol 2, nr. 2, 1993.

Book chapters/book contributions

Status

  • Ronald Leenes (2015), The Cookiewars – From regulatory failure to user empowerment?, in: Marc van Lieshout & Jaap-Henk Hoepman (eds), The Privacy & Identity Lab; 4 years later, Nijmegen: The Privacy & Identity Lab, pp. 31-49, ISBN: 978-90-824835-0-5
  • Paulan Korenhof, Jef Ausloos, Ivan Szekely, Meg Ambrose, Giovanni Sartor, and Ronald Leenes (2015), Timing the Right to Be Forgotten: A Study into “Time” as a Factor in Deciding About Retention or Erasure of Data, in: S. Gutwirth et al. (eds.), Reforming European Data Protection Law,Law, Governance and Technology Series 20, Dordrecht: Springer, 171-201, DOI 10.1007/978-94-017-9385-8__7 pre-print
  • Bibi van den Berg, Ronald Leenes (2012), Abort, retry, fail: scoping techno-regulation and other techno-effects, in Mireille Hildebrandt & Jaenne Gakeer (eds.) eds.), Human Law and Computer Law: Comparative Perspectives, Dordrecht, etc: Springer Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice 25,
    DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-6314-2_4 abstract
  • Koops, E.J., Leenes, Ronald, Cheating with implants: Implications of the hidden information advantage of bionic ears and eyes, in: M.N.  Gasson, E.  Kosta, D.M.  Bowman (eds), Human ICT Implants: Technical, Legal and Ethical Considerations, The Hague: TMC Asser, 2012, p. 113-134. SSRN pre-print
  • Leenes, Ronald, Denk na, omdat het kan, Den Haag: Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken/Rathenau, pp. 33-40,  2010.
  • Jan Camenisch, Ronald Leenes, Marit Hansen, Jan Schallaböck, An Introduction to Privacy-Enhancing Identity Management, in Jan Camenisch, Ronald Leenes, Dieter Sommer (eds), Digital Privacy: PRIME – Privacy and Identity Management for Europe, Heidelberg, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 3-21, 2011.
  • Ronald Leenes, Overview and Introduction Part II, in Jan Camenisch, Ronald Leenes, Dieter Sommer (eds), Digital Privacy: PRIME – Privacy and Identity Management for Europe, Heidelberg, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 27-31, 2011.
  • Bart Priem, Ronald Leenes, Eleni Kosta, Aleksandra Kuczerawy, The Identity Landscape, in Jan Camenisch, Ronald Leenes, Dieter Sommer (eds), Digital Privacy: PRIME – Privacy and Identity Management for Europe, Heidelberg, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 33-51, 2011.
  • Bart Priem, Ronald Leenes, Alea Fairchild, Eleni Kosta, The Need for Privacy-Enhancing Identity Management, in Jan Camenisch, Ronald Leenes, Dieter Sommer (eds), Digital Privacy: PRIME – Privacy and Identity Management for Europe, Heidelberg, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 53-71, 2011.
  • Eleni Kosta, Aleksandra Kuczerawy, Ronald Leenes, Jos Dumortier, Regulating Identity Management, in Jan Camenisch, Ronald Leenes, Dieter Sommer (eds), Digital Privacy: PRIME – Privacy and Identity Management for Europe, Heidelberg, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 73-89, 2011.
  • Bart Priem, Eleni Kosta, Aleksandra Kuczerawy, Jos Dumortier, Ronald Leenes, User-centric Privacy-Enhancing Identity Management, in Jan Camenisch, Ronald Leenes, Dieter Sommer (eds), Digital Privacy: PRIME – Privacy and Identity Management for Europe, Heidelberg, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 91-106, 2011.
  • Berg, Bibi, Leenes, Ronald, Keeping up appearances: Audience Segregation in Social Network Sites, in: Serge Gutwirth, Yves Poullet, Paul De Hert, Ronald Leenes (eds), Computers, Privacy and Data Protection: an Element of Choice, Dordrecht: Springer, 2011, pp. 211-231.
  • Leenes, R.E., Context is everything: sociality and privacy in Online Social Network Sites, in: M. Bezzi,  P. Duquenoy, S. Fischer-Hübner, M. Hansen, G. Zhang (eds.): Privacy and Identity, IFIP AICT 320, Heidelberg, Berlin, New York: Springer, 2010, pp. 48-65.
  • De Hert, P.J.A., E.J. Koops, R.E. Leenes, Constitutional Rights and New Technologies: A Comparative Perspective, in: van Rompuy, B., C. Pauwels, H. Kalimo, K. Donders (eds), Rethinking European Media and Communications Policy, Brussel, VUBPRESS Brussel University Press, 2009, pp. 319-350.
  • Simone van der Hof, Bert-Jaap Koops, Ronald Leenes, The Right to Anonymity in the Netherlands, in: Ian Kerr & Valerie Steeves & Carole Lucock (eds), Anonymity, Privacy and Identity in a Networked Society: Lessons from the Identity Trail, Oxford etc: Oxford University Press Inc, 2009, pp. 503-521.
  • Leenes, R.E., Oomen, I.C., The role of citizens: What can Dutch, Flemish and English students teach us about privacy?, in: S. Gutwirth, Y. Poullet, P. De Hert, C. De Terwangne, S. Nouwt (eds), Re-inventing Data Protection?, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 139-153, 2009.
  • Leenes, Ronald (2009), Privacy Regulation in the Metaverse, in: Brian Whitworth and Aldo de Moor (eds). Handbook of Research on Socio-Technical Design and Social Networking Systems, Hershey: IGI Global, pp. 123-136.
  • Teeuw, W., Vedder, A.H., Custers, B.H.M., Dorbeck-Jung, B., Faber, E., Iacob, S., Koops, E.J., Leenes, R.E., Poot, H. de, Rip, A. & Vudisa, J.N. (2008). Security Applications for Converging Technologies – Impact on the Constitutional State and the Legal order. Den Haag: Boom Juridische Uitgevers/WODC.
  • Leenes, R. (2008). Privacy in the Metaverse – Regulating a complex social construct in a Virtual World. In S. Fischer-Huebner, P. Duquenoy, A. Zuccato & L. Martucci (Eds.), Proceedings of the IFIP/FIDIS Summer School on “The Future of Identity in the Information Society”, Karlstad, 4-8 August 2007, pp. 95–112, 2008.
  • Leenes, R.E., Koops, E.J. & Hert, P.J.A. de (2007). Introduction. In R.E. Leenes, E.J. Koops & P.J.A. de Hert (Eds.), Constitutional Rights and New Technologies: A Comparative Study (Information Technology & Law Series; 15) (pp. 1-10). The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press.
  • Hert, P.J.A. de, Koops, E.J. & Leenes, R.E. (2007). Conclusions and Recommendations. In Ronald E. Leenes, Bert-Jaap Koops & Paul de Hert (Eds.), Constitutional rights and new technologies: A comparative study (Information Technology & Law Series, 15) (pp. 265-286). The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press.
  • Leenes, R. (2008). Mind my step? In M. Hildebrandt & S. Gutwirth (Eds.), Profiling the European Citizen – Cross-disciplinary perspectives (pp. 197-204). Dordrecht: Springer, 2008.
  • Leenes, R. (2008). Addressing the obscurity of data clouds. In M. Hildebrandt & S. Gutwirth (Eds.), Profiling the European Citizen – Cross-disciplinary perspectives (pp. 341-351). Dordrecht: Springer, 2008.
  • Leenes, R. E. & Koops, B.-J. (2006), Code & Privacy: Or How Technology is Slowly Eroding Privacy. in: Ascher, L. (Ed.) Coding Regulation. Essays on the Normative Role of Information Technology. pp. 141-203 T.M.C. Asser Press.
  • Kersting, Norbert, Ronald Leenes, and Jörgen Svensson. Adopting Electronic Voting – Context Matters. in: Norbert Kersting and Harald Baldersheim (eds), Electronic Voting and Democracy. A Comparative Analysis, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 276-305. 2004.
  • Leenes, R. The Enschede Virtual Public Counter: OLE 2000 a case study. In Å. Grönlund (Ed.), Electronic Government – Design, Applications and Management. Hershey, PA: IDEA Group Pub, pp. 202-222, 2002.
  • Lodder, A.R., and Leenes, R.E. Redeneren met regels en argumenteren. In A. Oskamp, and A.R. Lodder (Eds), Informatietechnologie voor juristen. Deventer: Kluwer, pp. 93-118, 2002.
  • Leenes, Ronald. Bewijslastverdeling in dialoogspelen en de Nederlandse civiele procedure. in M.A. Heldeweg, R.J.P.  Schobben en W.G. Werner (red.), De Regel Meester, Enschede: Twente University Press. pp. 125-143, 2001.
  • Leenes, R., and Svensson, J., Schaalproblemen in de ontwikkeling van elektronische dienstverlening. In H.P.M. Van Duivenboden, and M. Lips (Eds.), Klantgericht werken in de publieke sector. Inrichting van de elektronische overheid. 167-184. Utrecht: Uitgeverij LEMMA BV, 2001.
  • A.R. Lodder en R.E. Leenes, Argumenteren en redeneren, in: A. Oskamp en A.R. Lodder (red.) Informatietechnologie voor juristen: Handboek voor de jurist in de 21ste eeuw, Kluwer: Deventer, pp. 195-209, 1999.
  • Ronald Leenes, One-stop government: the Enschede virtual public counter, a case study, in: Herbert Kubicek (ed). Proceedings of New Interfaces Between Government and Citizens: One-Stop-Government Through ICT, Bremen, 1999.

Peer reviewed conference papers

Status

  • Koops, Bert-Jaap & Ronald Leenes, Cheating with implants: Implications of the hidden information advantage of bionic ears and eyes, in: Bibi van den Berg & Laura Klaming, Technologies on the stand – Legal and ethical questions in neuroscience and robotics, Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers, pp. 195-214, 2011.
  • Malone, Paul, Mark McLaughlin, R.E. Leenes, Pierfranco Ferronato, Nick Lockett, Pedro Bueso Guillen, Thomas Heistracher, Giovanni Russello, ENDORSE: A Legal Technical Framework for Privacy Preserving Data Management, Workshop on Governance of Technology, Information, and Policies (GTIP) at annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC2010), New York: ACM, pp. 27-34, 2011.
  • Berg, Bibi van den, Ronald Leenes, Audience segregation in social network sites, in: Proceedings for SocialCom2010/PASSAT2010 (Second IEEE International Conference on Social Computing/Second IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust), SocialCom2010/PASSAT2010 (Second IEEE International Conference on Social Computing/Second IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust). Minneapolis (Minnesota, USA), Washington: IEEE, pp. 1111-1117.
  •   SSRN pre-print

  • Oomen, I., & Leenes, R. (2007). Privacy risk perceptions and privacy protection strategies. In S. Fischer-Hübner (Ed.), Proceedings of IDMAN’07 – IFIP WG 11.6 working conference on Policies & Research in Identity Management. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 121-138, 2008.
  • Corry van ZEELAND, Ronald LEENES, Jelle van VEENEN and Janneke van der LINDEN, in: Tom van Engers (ed), Legal Knowledge and Information Systems – JURIX 2006: The Nineteenth Annual Conference, Volume 152 Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Amsterdam etc: IOS-Press, November 2006, pp131-140.
  • Jan Camenisch, Abhi Shelat, Dieter Sommer, Simone Fischer-Huebner, Marit Hansen, Henry Krasemann, Gerard Lacoste, Ronald Leenes, Jimmy Tseng. In: ACM DIM 2005. Privacy and Identity Management for Everyone.
  • Vries, B.R. de, Leenes, R.E., Zeleznikow, J. (2005). Fundamentals of Providing Negotiation Advice Online: the Need for Developing BATNAs. In Zeleznikow, J., Lodder, A.R. (Ed.) Second International ODR Workshop (odrworkshop.info). Tilburg: Wolf Legal Publishers. pp. 59-67
  • Leenes, Ronald, and Jörgen Svensson. Electronic Services in a Decentralized State. in Electronic Government. Third International Conference, EGOV 2004, edited by Roland Traunmüller. Zaragoza: Springer. pp. 496-502. 2004.
  • Muntjewerff, A.J., Jordaans, A., Hoekstra, R., and Leenes, R. Case Analysis and Storage Environment: CASE. In D. Bourcier (Ed.), Legal Knowledge and Information Systems: Jurix 2003: The Sixteenth Annual Conference. Amsterdam etc: IOS-Press, pp. 1-10, 2003.
  • Leenes, R.E. Fast Forward. Boosting e-Government development by looking at the neighbours. In R. Traunmuller, and M. Palmirani (Eds.), E-Government: Modelling Norms and Concepts as Key Issues. Bologna: Gedit Edizioni, pp. 27-36, 2003.
  • Leenes, R.E. (2003). Abort or Retry, – A Role for Legal Knowledge Based Systems in Electronic Service Delivery? In M.A. Wimmer (Ed.), Knowledge management in electronic government : 4th IFIP international working conference, KMGov 2003, Rhodes, Greece, May 26-28, 2003 : proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 60-69, 2003.
  • Leenes, R.E., and Svensson, J.S. Adapting E-voting in Europe: context matters. Paper presented at EGPA 2002 in Potsdam, 2002.
  • Leenes, R.E., and Svensson, J.S. Size Matters – Electronic service delivery by municipalities? In R. Traunmüller, and K. Lenk (Eds.), Electronic Government – First International Conference, EGOV 2002, Aix-en-Provcence, France. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 150-156. 2002.
  • Leenes, R.E. The long winding road to (local) e-government. Paper presented at Ajuntaments en Xarxa in Girona, Spain. 14-15 March 2002, 2002.
  • Leenes, R.E., and Khapova, S.V. Placing Government in competition. Paper presented at the EGPA Conference, Vaasa Finland, pp. 1-10, 2001.
  • Ronald E. Leenes, Burden of proof in dialogue games and Dutch civil procedure, in: proceedings of the The 8th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, St. Louis USA, pp. 109-118, 2001.
  • R.E. Leenes, Burden of Proof in DiaLaw and Dutch Civil Procedure, in: M.H. Hamza (ed.) Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference LAW and TECHNOLOGY (LawTech’99), Honolulu, Hawaii August 9-12 1999, Anaheim: ACTA Press, pp. 158-165, 1999.
  • Ronald Leenes, Burden of Proof in Legal Dialogue Systems, in proceedings of the Bileta ’99 conference: CyberLaw 99, York, 1999.
  • Ronald Leenes & Jan Schaake, OLE2000, a Study in Questions and Demand, IFIP WG 8.5 Workshop, Stockholm, 1997 pp. 1-21.
  • Ronald Leenes and Jorgen Svensson (1996) Supporting the legal practitioner:
  • LKBS or Web?, in: I.M. Carr & A. Narayanan (eds) Proceedings of the Fifth National/First European Conference on Law, Computers and Artificial Intelligence. Exeter: University of Exeter. 52-64.
  • Ronald Leenes and Jorgen Svensson (1995) Large-scale computer networks and the future of legal knowledge-based systems. In: J.C. Hage, T.J.M. Bench-Capon, M.J. Cohen, H.J. van den Herik (eds), Legal Knowledge Based Systems: Telecommunication and AI & Law, Lelystad: Koninklijke Vermande, 75-86.
  • Ronald Leenes, Arno Lodder and Jaap Hage, A dialog game for legal arguments, in: Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Law, Computers and Artificial Intelligence, Exeter, pp. 112-122, 1994.
  • Ronald Leenes, Towards a computational model for Legal Reasoning: A mental model approach, in: Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Law, Computers and Artificial Intelligence, Aberystwyth (Wales), pp. 99-104, 1992.

Project deliverables

Status

  • Cuijpers, C.M.K.C., De Hert, P.J.A., Koops, E.J., Kosta, E., Leenes, R.E. (2013) Clean IT Best Practices: comments from the perspective of fundamental rights, Tilburg: TILT. Commissioned by EU Clean IT project
  • Koops, E.J., Bodea, G. Hoepman, J.H. Leenes, R.E., Vedder, A. (2012). D3.4: Code as Code Assessment, Tilburg: TILT, VIRTUOSO project, http://www.virtuoso.eu/VIRTUOSO/servlet/document.fileView/D3.4%20Code%20as%20code%20assessment_v1.0_Apr2012def.pdf
  • Koops, E.J.,  R.E. Leenes, P.J.A. De  Hert, S. Olislaegers, Misdaad en opsporing in de wolken. Knelpunten en kansen van cloud computing voor de Nederlandse opsporing, Den Haa/Tilburg: WODC, 2012.
  • Cuijpers, C.M.K.C., M.H.M. Schellekens, R.E. Leenes, Analysis of liability constraints, VIRTUOSO heartbeat 3.2.4, 31 Oct 2011
  • Ronald Leenes, Pedro Bueso, Sandra Olislaegers, Bibi van den Berg, ENDORSE. Deliverable D2.5 Legal Requirements, 576 pages, 2011.
  • Ronald Leenes, Thijs Bosters, Trust in ID infrastructure, Tilburg: Tilburg University, 2011.
  • Laura Klaming, Ronald Leenes, Annemarie Sprokkereef, Report on Action Area 1: Survey and Feedback, Final report to the European Commission, DG Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship Programme, Tilburg: Tilburg University, 2010
  • Leenes, R.E., Koops, B.J., Wees, L., Onderzoek naar het gebruik van het Burger- servicenummer (BSN) binnen de keten van de elektronische dienstverlening tussen de over- heid en bedrijven, Tilburg: TILT, 2010.
  • Hof, S. van der, Leenes, R.E., Fennel-van Esch, S., Framing Citizen’s Identities: The construction of personal identities in new modes of government in the Netherlands, Tilburg: TILT, 2010.
  • Hof, S. van der, Leenes, R.E., Gedeelde en samengestelde identiteiten in de publieke dienstverlening, Tilburg: TILT, 2010.
  • Ronald Leenes, Bart Priem, Carla van de Wiel, Karolina Owczynik, D2.2 – Report on Legal Interoperability, STORK (Towards pan-European recognition of electronic IDs (eIDs)), 2009.
  • Brussee, R., Heerink, L., Leenes, R.E., Nouwt, J., Pekárek, M.E., Sprokkereef, A.C.J. & Teeuw, W. Persoonsinformatie- of identiteitsbeleid? Identiteitsvaststelling en elektronische dossiers in het licht van maatschappelijke en technologische ontwikkelingen. Enschede: Telematica Instituut, 2008.
  • Leenes, R.E., Cuijpers, C.M.K.C., Dohmen, C. & Knapen, C. Juridische context BurgerServiceCode. Tilburg: TILT, 2008.
  • Fischner-Hübner, S., Hedbom, H., Hansen, M., Hogben, G., Andersson, C., Leenes, R.E., Kosta, E., Fairchild, A.M., Ribbers, P.M.A., Keller, P., Priem, B.P., Oomen, I.C., Kuczerawy, A., Tseng, J., Sommer, D., Pettersson, J.S., Kramer, G., Fritsch, L., Kohlweiss, M., Zibuschka, J. & Casassa-Mont, M. PRIME Framework V3. EU: PRIME consortium, 2008.
  • Leenes, R.E., Schallaböck, J. & Hansen, M. (2008). PRIME white paper v3, February 2008. S.l.: The PRIME consortium, 2008.
  • Eleni Kosta, Jos Dumortier, Piet Ribbers, Alea Fairchild, Jimmy Tseng, Katja Liesbach, Elke Franz, Ronald Leenes, Marcel Hoogwout, Bart Priem, Tobias Kölsch, Jan Zibuschka, Georg Kramer, Günter Schumacher, Requirements for Privacy Enhancing Tools V3, 20 March 2008, The PRIME consortium.
  • Ronald Leenes, Jan Schallaböck, Marit Hansen, PRIME white paper v2, June 2007, PRIME consortium.
  • Leenes, R.E. & Fischer-Huebner, S. (eds.), PRIME Framework V2, 27 July 2006, PRIME consortium.
  • Leenes, R.E., Koops, B.J., Delaitre, S., Meints, M., Maghiros, I., Graux, H., Rost, M., Zuccato, A., Nikova, S., Clauss, S., Andronikou, V., Kursawe, K., & Geradts, Z. (2006). D 5.2b ID-related Crime: Towards a Common Ground for Interdisciplinary Research. EU: Fidis.
  • Koops, B.J., Poels, R.C.P., Leenes, R.E., Lips, A.M.B., Prins, J.E.J., Vedder, A.H., & Groenhuijsen, M.S. (2005). Veiligheid en privacy in 2030: twee toekomstscenario’s. Tilburg: Universiteit van Tilburg, 2005.
  • Hof, S. van der, Prins, J.E.J., Cuijpers, C.M.K.C., Leenes, R.E., Peters, J.A.F., Kaspersen, H.W.K., Koelman, K.J., & Lodder, A.R. (2004). Aandachtspunten OTP. Over bestuursrechtelijke en andere juridische consequenties van de Overheidstransactiepoort. pp. 1-48. Tilburg: Universiteit van Tilburg.
  • Leenes, R.E., & Vries, B.R. de (2004). Evaluatieverslag Proof of concept centrale server bouwaanvragen. Tilburg: TILT.
  • Leenes, R.E., and Svensson, J.S. e-Voting in Europe: a brief report on the developments in 13 countries. Enschede: University of Twente/TRIPS, 2003.
  • Van Venrooij, A., Leenes, R., Hoogwout, M., van Rossem, R. en Brouwers, G. VROM-visie op dienstverlening; Sturing in uitvoering. 57. Den Haag: Ministerie van VROM, 2002.
  • Leenes, R.E., Winkels, R., and de Vey Mestdagh, C.N.J. Kennisarchitecturen voor elektronische overheidsdienstverlening (Knowledge architectures for electronic service delivery). Den Haag: Ministerie van VROM, 2002.
  • Leenes, R., Svensson, J., and Aarts, K. Invoering van ICT in het kiesproces; een survey in 17 Europses landen. tussenrapportage. 6. Enschede: Universiteit Twente, 2002.
  • Aarts, C.W.A.M., Leenes, R.E., and Svensson, J.S. Kiezen op Afstand Monitor: Vooronderzoek, rapportage in opdracht van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties. Den Haag: Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties, 2001.
  • Aarts, C.W.A.M., Leenes, R.E., and Svensson, J.S. Kiezen op Afstand Monitor: Nulmeting, rapportage in opdracht van het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties (4 delen). Den Haag: Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties, 2001.
  • Venrooij, A., Leenes, R., and Hoogwout, M. De burger centraal in dienstverlening en beleid: Discussienota ten behoeve van de formulering van een dienstverleningsbeleid voor het Ministerie van VROM. Den Haag: Ministerie van VROM, 2001.
  • R.E. Leenes, J. Schaake, R. van Veen, G.A.N. Vissers, E.M.A.G. van Dijk, Monitoren van geïntegreerde dienstverlening, handboek deel III serie handboeken Overheidsloket 2000, Den Haag: Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken, 1997.
  • Robbert Braak, Ireen van Enckevort, Ronald Leenes, Francine L’Ortye (red), Van vraagpatroon naar loket, handboek deel I serie handboeken Overheidsloket 2000, Den Haag: Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken, 1997.
  • Ronald Leenes, Suplex-2; Een kennissysteem voor subsidieregelingen, Memoranda van de werkgroep Informatisering en Kennissystemen van de vakgroep Sociologie, Faculteit Bestuurskunde, Universiteit Twente, no. 89-2, 1989.
  • Ronald Leenes, SUPLEX: een kennissysteem voor subsidieregelingen, in: AI Toepassingen ‘89, Den Haag: SIC/ Stichting kennistechniek, 1989.
  • Ronald Leenes, Kennisrepresentatieproblemen in juridische expertsystemen, afstudeerscriptie, Enschede: UT-BSK, 1988.

Journals

Status

  • Hildebrandt, M., R.E. Leenes, M.Lokin, Technologie en wetgeving in cyberspace: verstandshuwelijk of innige relatie?, in Regelmaat, 2012, jrg. 27, nr. 2, pp. 61-75.
  • Leenes, Ronald, Auteursrecht in toom: bescherming van gebruikersrechten in Free Software, boekbespreking van Krzysztof Siewicz, RM Themis, 2011, pp. 137- 140.
  • Leenes, R.E. (2011), Technoregulering: regulering of ‘slechts’ disciplinering, Recht der werkelijkheid, 2011 (32) 1, pp. 47-52.
  • Koops, B.-J., Leenes, R. E., & De Hert, P. (2008), Grondrechten en nieuwe technologieën – Een rechtsvergelijkend overzicht, Nederlands Juristenblad, nr 19, 9 mei 2008, pp. 1157-1164.
  • Leenes, R.E. (2007). Introduction: Online Dispute Resolution and Data Protection. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 127(2007), 79-80.
  • Leenes, R.E., Hert, P.J.A. de, Velpen, J. Vander, Thienpont, A., & Maebe, J. (2006). Iedereen wordt er slechter van. Europese regelgeving over het bewaren van gegevens bij misdaadbestrijding. Nederlands Juristenblad, 24(81), 1318-1319.
  • Koops, B.J., Leenes, R.E., Marbus, R.C.P., Stuurman, C., Verschuuren, J.M. (2005).  Een heel klein artikel met grote gevolgen. Eerste verkenning van nanotechnologie & recht. Nederlands Juristenblad, 80(30),1554-1559.